Legislation: NPC’s Quasi-Legislative Decisions (Beta)

This page is a work in progress. Last updated: September 6, 2021

As discussed in detail in this post, quasi-legislative decisions are a type of legal documents adopted by the NPC or its Standing Committee (NPCSC) without presidential promulgation. While they do not qualify as statutes in the constitutional sense—which are promulgated by the President—quasi-legislative decisions have the same force as statutes and are part of the NPC and NPCSC’s “legislation.”

This page lists almost all quasi-legislative decisions with ongoing effect as of February 1, 2021. (References to the NPC or the NPCSC in their titles are omitted for brevity.) These decisions are divided into ones with long-term effect and ones with temporary effect. Decisions adopted by the NPC are shaded in gold; all other decisions were made by the NPCSC. This page also lists a few documents styled as decisions but qualify as statutes in the constitutional sense. As discussed here, we term these decisions “mini-statutes,” for they are typically much shorter than “full statutes.” The main difference between mini-statutes and quasi-legislative decisions is that the former are promulgated by the President.

Where available, we have linked to free translations of these decisions or ones available for an affordable fee, as well as our own coverage of the decisions. For some decisions without any freely available translation of their most current version, we have linked to the translation of a previous version that does not differ significantly. We will continue to update this page as new decisions are adopted and existing ones are updated, are repealed, or expire.

Decisions with Long-Term Effect

Notes: “P.O.” is short for “presidential order” [主席令]. The 1978 Constitution did not create the position of the P.R.C. President and authorized the NPCSC to adopt only “ordinances” [法令], which were inferior to the “statutes” [法律] enacted by the NPC. The 1982 Constitution later reinstated the Presidency and gave the NPCSC power to enact “statutes,” which must be promulgated by the President.

Decision Date Adopted P.O.? Summary Note
关于中华人民共和国建国以来制定的法律、法令效力问题的决议
(China Law Info translation)
1979/11/29 N/A confirming the validity of laws and ordinances enacted since the founding of the P.R.C., unless inconsistent with the Constitution, laws, and ordinances enacted by the 5th NPC or its Standing Committee (1978–1983) qualifying only as an “ordinance” under the 1978 Constitution
关于加强法律解释工作的决议
(China Law Info translation)
1981/6/10 N/A specifying various governmental bodies’ roles in interpreting national and local legislation qualifying only as an “ordinance” under the 1978 Constitution; partially superseded by the Legislation Law
关于授权广东省、福建省人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定所属经济特区的各项单行经济法规的决议
(China Law Info translation)
1981/11/26 N/A authorizing the Guangdong and Fujian provincial legislatures to enact separate economic regulations for their special economic zones qualifying only as an “ordinance” under the 1978 Constitution
关于开展全民义务植树运动的决议 1981/12/13 N/A launching a nationwide tree-planting campaign in which every able-bodied citizen over eleven should plant 3 to 5 trees per year or volunteer equivalent services
关于批准长江南通港、张家港对外国籍船舶开放的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1982/11/19 N/A opening the Nantong and Zhangjiagang ports on the Yangtze River to foreign vessels qualifying only as an “ordinance” under the 1978 Constitution
关于县级以下人民代表大会代表直接选举的若干规定
(NPC translation)
1983/3/5 prescribing rules for the direct elections of delegates to the people’s congresses at or below the county level not promulgated by the President, but officially categorized as a statute
关于国家安全机关行使公安机关的侦查、拘留、预审和执行逮捕的职权的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1983/9/2 authorizing state security organs to exercise the police’s criminal justice functions
关于在沿海港口城市设立海事法院的决定
(NPC translation)
1984/11/14 Y authorizing the Supreme People’s Court to establish maritime courts in coastal cities
关于授权国务院在经济体制改革和对外开放方面可以制定暂行的规定或者条例的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1985/4/10 authorizing the State Council to enact interim regulations relating to economic reforms and opening up
关于批准长江南京港对外国籍船舶开放的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1986/1/20 opening the Nanjing port on the Yangtze River to foreign vessels and authorizing the State Council to open other ports on the Yangtze River that are downstream of the Nanjing Port to foreign vessels
关于对中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约所规定的罪行行使刑事管辖权的决定
(NPC translation)
1987/6/23 allowing China to exercise criminal jurisdiction consistent with the international treaties it has joined, notwithstanding contrary provisions of domestic criminal law not promulgated by the President, but officially categorized as a statute
关于批准法制工作委员会关于对1978年底以前颁布的法律进行清理情况和意见报告的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1987/11/24 approving a report by the NPCSC Legislative Affairs Commission concluding that 159 laws enacted by end of 1978 had in fact expired
关于建立海南经济特区的决议
(China Law Info translation)
1988/4/13 establishing the Hainan Special Economic Zone and authorizing the Hainan provincial legislature to enact special economic zone regulations
关于设立香港特别行政区的决定
(NPC translation via HKSAR Gov’t)
1990/4/4 establishing the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
关于《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区基本法》的决定
(NPC translation via HKSAR Gov’t)
1990/4/4 affirming the constitutionality of the Hong Kong Basic Law
关于《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区基本法》英文本的决定
(NPC translation via HKSAR Gov’t)
1990/6/28 approving an official English translation of the Hong Kong Basic Law and providing that the Chinese version prevails over the English one in the event of any conflict
关于惩治走私、制作、贩卖、传播淫秽物品的犯罪分子的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1990/12/28 (amended 2009/8/27) Y prescribing criminal and administrative penalties for the offenses of smuggling, manufacturing, selling, and distributing obscene articles criminal provisions have been superseded by the 1997 Criminal Law
关于严禁卖淫嫖娼的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1991/9/4 (amended 2009/8/27; art. 4, paras. 2, 4 repealed 2019/12/29) Y prescribing criminal and administrative penalties for prostitution-related offenses criminal provisions have been superseded by the 1997 Criminal Law; most administrative provisions have also been repealed or lost force
关于严惩拐卖、绑架妇女、儿童的犯罪分子的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1991/9/4 (amended 2009/8/27) Y prescribing criminal penalties for the offenses of kidnapping and trafficking in women and children criminal provisions have been superseded by the 1997 Criminal Law
关于批准武汉、九江、芜湖港对外国籍船舶开放的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1991/10/30 opening the Wuhan, Jiujiang, and Wuhu ports to foreign vessels and authorizing the State Council to open other inland ports to foreign vessels
关于授权深圳市人民代表大会及其常务委员会和深圳市人民政府分别制定法规和规章在深圳经济特区实施的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1992/7/1 authorizing the Shenzhen municipal legislature to enact special economic zone regulations and its municipal government to issue rules
关于设立中华人民共和国澳门特别行政区的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1993/3/31 establishing the Macao Special Administrative Region
关于《中华人民共和国澳门特别行政区基本法》的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1993/3/31 affirming the constitutionality of the Macao Basic Law
关于《中华人民共和国澳门特别行政区基本法》葡萄牙文本的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1993/7/2 approving an official Portuguese translation of the Macao Basic Law and providing that the Chinese version prevails over the Portuguese one in the event of any conflict
关于外商投资企业和外国企业适用增值税、消费税、营业税等税收暂行条例的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1993/12/29 Y applying interim tax regulations to foreign and foreign-invested enterprises
关于中国人民解放军保卫部门对军队内部发生的刑事案件行使公安机关的侦查、拘留、预审和执行逮捕的职权的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1993/12/29 authorizing the People’s Liberation Army’s security departments to exercise the police’s criminal justice functions with respect to crimes within the military
关于授权厦门市人民代表大会及其常务委员会和厦门市人民政府分别制定法规和规章在厦门经济特区实施的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1994/3/22 authorizing the Xiamen municipal legislature to enact special economic zone regulations and its municipal government to issue rules
关于惩治破坏金融秩序犯罪的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1995/6/30 Y prescribing criminal and administrative penalties for certain financial offenses, including counterfeiting currency, forging financial instruments, bank fraud, and insurance fraud criminal provisions have been superseded by the 1997 Criminal Law
关于惩治虚开、伪造和非法出售增值税专用发票犯罪的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1995/10/30 Y prescribing criminal and administrative penalties for the offenses of falsely making out, forging, and illegal selling certain tax invoices criminal provisions have been superseded by the 1997 Criminal Law
关于授权汕头市和珠海市人民代表大会及其常务委员会、人民政府分别制定法规和规章在各自的经济特区实施的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1996/3/17 authorizing the Shantou and Zhuhai municipal legislatures to enact special economic zone regulations and their municipal governments to issue rules
关于根据《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区基本法》第一百六十条处理香港原有法律的决定
(NPC translation; HKSAR Gov’t translation)
1997/2/23 declaring a list of Hong Kong’s pre-handover laws, in full or in part, in contravention of the Hong Kong Basic Law, thus not adopted as the laws of Hong Kong post-handover; and laying down rules for interpreting and applying certain provisions and terms in Hong Kong laws
关于惩治骗购外汇、逃汇和非法买卖外汇犯罪的决定
(NPC translation)
1998/12/29 Y punishing the crimes of fraudulently purchasing foreign exchange, evading foreign exchange control, and illegally trading in foreign exchange
关于新疆维吾尔自治区生产建设兵团设置人民法院和人民检察院的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1998/12/29 establishing courts and procuratorates within the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps
关于取缔邪教组织、防范和惩治邪教活动的决定
(China Law Info translation)
1999/10/30 outlawing “cults” [邪教组织] in general and Falun Gong in particular
关于根据《中华人民共和国澳门特别行政区基本法》第一百四十五条处理澳门原有法律的决定
(NPC translation)
1999/10/31 declaring a list of Macao’s pre-handover laws, in full or in part, in contravention of the Macao Basic Law, thus not adopted as the laws of Macao post-handover; and laying down rules for interpreting and applying certain provisions and terms in Macao laws
关于加强中央预算审查监督的决定 1999/12/25

(revised 2021/4/29)

strengthening the national legislature’s role in reviewing and overseeing the implementation of the central budget
关于加强经济工作监督的决定
(China Law Info translation)
2000/3/1 strengthening the national legislature’s role in reviewing and overseeing the implementation of National Economic and Social Development Plans
关于维护互联网安全的决定
(China Law Info translation (v. 2000))
2000/12/28 (amended 2009/8/27) interpreting the application of existing criminal law and public security law provisions to online conduct not officially categorized as a statute, though 2009 amendment was promulgated by the President
关于设立全民国防教育日的决定
(China Law Info translation)
2001/8/31 establishing the third Saturday of September as the Nationwide National Defense Education Day
关于司法鉴定管理问题的决定
(China Law Info translation (v. 2005))
2005/2/28 (amended 2015/4/24) regulating judicial authenticating institutions and judicial authenticators not officially categorized as a statute, though 2015 amendment was promulgated by the President
关于授权香港特别行政区对深圳湾口岸港方口岸区实施管辖的决定
(NPC translation via HKSAR Gov’t)
2006/10/31 authorizing Hong Kong to exercise jurisdiction over the Hong Kong Port Area of the Shenzhen Bay Port, which is located in the mainland
关于授权澳门特别行政区对设在横琴岛的澳门大学新校区实施管辖的决定
(NPC translation)
2009/6/27 authorizing Macao to exercise jurisdiction over the University of Macao’s new campus, which is located in the mainland to expire on December 19, 2049, subject to renewal by the NPCSC
关于废止有关劳动教养法律规定的决定
(China Law Translate $ translation)
2013/12/28 abolishing the reeducation-through-labor system
关于确定中国人民抗日战争胜利纪念日的决定 2014/2/27 designating September 3 as the Victory Day of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression
关于设立南京大屠杀死难者国家公祭日的决定 2014/2/27 designating December 13 as the National Memorial Day for the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre
关于设立烈士纪念日的决定 2014/8/31 designating September 30 as the Martyrs’ Day
关于在北京、上海、广州设立知识产权法院的决定 2014/8/31 establishing specialized intellectual property courts in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou
关于设立国家宪法日的决定 2014/11/1 designating December 4 as the National Constitution Day
关于实行宪法宣誓制度的决定
(NPC Observer translation)
2015/7/1 (revised 2018/2/24) establishing a constitutional-oath system
关于批准《内地与香港特别行政区关于在广深港高铁西九龙站设立口岸实施”一地两检”的合作安排》的决定
(HKSAR Gov’t translation; Our coverage)
2017/12/27 approving and confirming the constitutionality of an agreement between Hong Kong and mainland authorities that allows the latter to exercise jurisdiction over part of a high-speed railway station in Hong Kong
关于设立上海金融法院的决定
(NPC Observer translation)
2018/4/27 establishing a Shanghai Financial Court
关于专利等知识产权案件诉讼程序若干问题的决定
(China Law Translate $ translation; Our coverage)
2018/10/26 authorizing direct appeals to the Supreme People’s Court in certain technical intellectual property cases
关于国家监察委员会制定监察法规的决定
(NPC translation; Our coverage)
2019/10/26 authorizing the State Supervision Commission to adopt “supervisory regulations” [监察法规]
关于授权澳门特别行政区对横琴口岸澳方口岸区及相关延伸区实施管辖的决定
(NPC translation; Our coverage)
2019/10/26 authorizing Macao to exercise jurisdiction over the Macao Port Area of the renovated Hengqin Port and other surrounding areas to expire on December 19, 2049, subject to renewal by the NPCSC
关于废止有关收容教育法律规定和制度的决定
(NPC translation; Our coverage)
2019/12/28 Y abolishing “custody and education” [收容教育], an extrajudicial detention system for sex workers and their clients
关于建立健全香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定
(Bill page)
2020/5/28 ordering Hong Kong to enact legislation and create institutions to safeguard national security and authorizing the NPCSC to enact national security legislation for Hong Kong
关于香港特别行政区立法会议员资格问题的决定
(HKSAR Gov’t translation; Our coverage)
2020/11/11 clarifying Hong Kong legislators’ obligations to uphold the Basic Law and swear allegiance to Hong Kong and disqualifying four pro-democracy legislators
关于加强国有资产管理情况监督的决定
(Our coverage)
2020/12/26 institutionalizing the NPCSC’s oversight of the State Council’s management of state assets
关于设立海南自由贸易港知识产权法院的决定
(Our coverage)
2020/12/26 establishing a Hainan Free Trade Port Intellectual Property Court
关于设立北京金融法院的决定
(NPC Observer translation; Our coverage)
2021/1/12 establishing a Beijing Financial Court
关于完善香港特别行政区选举制度的决定
(Bill page)
2021/3/11 authorizing the NPCSC to amend Annexes I and II to the Hong Kong Basic Law to overhaul Hong Kong’s electoral system
关于授权上海市人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定浦东新区法规的决定
(NPC Observer translation; Our coverage)
2021/6/10 authorizing the Shanghai legislature to enact Pudong New Area regulations (comparable to special economic zone regulations)

Decisions with Temporary Effect

Decision Date Adopted Summary Note
关于军官制度改革期间暂时调整适用相关法律规定的决定
(NPC Observer translation)
2016/12/25 suspending certain provisions of the Officers in Active Service Law and the Regulations on the Military Ranks of PLA Officers while the Central Military Commission conducts pilot reform of the military officer system to lose current effect once the two statutes are amended to codify the reform
关于国务院机构改革涉及法律规定的行政机关职责调整问题的决定 2018/4/27 ensuring continuity in the functioning of agencies affected by the 2018 State Council reorganization when the relevant statutes are yet to be amended to lose current effect once the relevant statutes are all amended to reflect the change in the makeup of agencies and their functions
关于全国人民代表大会宪法和法律委员会职责问题的决定
(NPC Observer translation)
2018/6/22 making clear that the NPC Constitution and Law Committee succeeds to its predecessor body’s functions under five statutes and assigning the Committee responsibilities over, inter alia, constitutional review and interpretation to lose current effect once the five statutes are amended to refer to the Committee and incorporate its new duties
关于授权国务院提前下达部分新增地方政府债务限额的决定 2018/12/29 authorizing the State Council to allow local governments to issue bonds within a certain percentage of their annual new debt limits before the NPC approves that year’s state budget to expire on December 31, 2022
关于授权国务院在自由贸易试验区暂时调整适用有关法律规定的决定
(NPC translation)
2019/10/26 authorizing the State Council to suspend certain provisions in seven statutes relating to administrative approvals in China’s free trade zones to expire on December 1, 2022; partially codified in April 2021
关于授权最高人民法院在部分地区开展民事诉讼程序繁简分流改革试点工作的决定
(NPC translation; Our coverage)
2019/12/28 authorizing the Supreme People’s Court to pilot civil procedure reform in select courts to expire on January 15, 2022
关于全面禁止非法野生动物交易、革除滥食野生动物陋习、切实保障人民群众生命健康安全的决定
(NPC translation; Our coverage)
2020/2/24 imposing a near-total ban on consuming wild terrestrial animals and authorizing enhanced penalties for wildlife crimes to lose current effect after the relevant statutes, including the Wildlife Protection Law, are amended to incorporate its provisions
关于授权国务院在中国(海南)自由贸易试验区暂时调整适用有关法律规定的决定
(NPC translation)
2020/4/29 authorizing the State Council to suspend certain provisions in three statutes relating to administrative approvals in the Hainan Free Trade Zone to expire on December 31, 2024
关于授权国务院在粤港澳大湾区内地九市开展香港法律执业者和澳门执业律师取得内地执业资质和从事律师职业试点工作的决定
(NPC Observer translation; Our coverage)
2020/8/11 authorizing the State Council to conduct a pilot program that would allow lawyers licensed in Hong Kong or Macau to practice mainland law after passing a special bar exam to expire on October 5, 2023
关于香港特别行政区第六届立法会继续履行职责的决定
(HKSAR Gov’t translation; Our coverage)
2020/8/11 extending the term of the 6th Hong Kong Legislative Council for at least a year, until the 7th Legislative Council is elected to lose current effect once the 7th Legislative Council is elected
关于授权国务院在自由贸易试验区暂时调整适用有关法律规定的决定 2021/4/29 authorizing the State Council to suspend certain provisions in seven statutes relating to administrative approvals in China’s free trade zones to expire on July 1, 2024
关于授权最高人民法院组织开展四级法院审级职能定位改革试点工作的决定
(NPC Observer translation)
2021/8/20 authorizing the Supreme People’s Court to conduct pilot reforms to reposition the adjudicatory roles of China’s four tiers of courts to expire two years after the Court issues detailed pilot rules

Decisions Without Current Effect

Decision Date Adopted Summary Note
关于加强网络信息保护的决定
(China Copyright and Media translation)
2012/12/28 strengthening protections for citizens’ personal electronic information superseded by the Cybersecurity Law, effective June 1, 2017, and the Personal Information Protection Law, effective Nov. 1, 2021
关于香港特别行政区行政长官普选问题和2016年立法会产生办法的决定
(HKSAR Gov’t translation)
2014/8/31 laying down requirements for electing the Hong Kong Chief Executive by universal suffrage superseded by the revised Annex I to the Hong Kong Basic Law, effective Mar. 31, 2021